Peter Carruthers argues that animals do not have significant moral value. He makes this claim because he believes that animals lack consciousness.

Peter Singer approaches the question of animal rights from a utilitarian perspective. Just as the happiness of men is no more important than the happiness of women, and the happiness of caucasians is no more important than the happiness of asians, so, he suggests, the happiness of humans is no more important than the happiness of non-humans. We have recognised that sexism and racism are evils that must be overcome; we should do the same for speciesism.

Tom Regan’s approach …